Kalmunai is a municipality within the Ampara District of Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. It had a total population of 91,457 as of 2001. There were Sri Lankan Muslims, Sri Lankan Tamils, Sinhalese, and Burghers with the Muslims forming a majority. The ongoing Sri Lankan civil war has adversely affected the area with number forced disappearances, and civil unrest targeting the local civilians. It was also directly impacted by the 2004 Tsunami leading to number of deaths and destruction of property. It is bounded on the east by the Indian Ocean on the north by the Periyaneelavanai village and on the south by Sainthamarathu village which is considered to be a suburb of the town.
More than 20% of the 6.1 million-strong labor force, excluding the north and east, is unionized. Trade union membership is on the decline. There are more than 1,650 registered trade unions, many of which have 50 or fewer members, and 19 federations. Many unions have political affiliations. The Ceylon Workers Congress (CWC) and Lanka Jathika estate workers union are the two largest unions representing workers in the heavily unionized plantation sector. The president of the CWC also is Minister of Livestock Development and Estate Infrastructure. The CWC’s agenda includes political issues, such as citizenship status for stateless Indian Tamils. Some of the stronger and more influential trade unions include the Ceylon Mercantile Union, Sri Lanka Nidhahas Sevaka Sangamaya, Jathika Sevaka Sangayama, Ceylon Federation of Trade Unions, Ceylon Bank Employees Union, Union of Post and Telecommunication Officers, Conference of Public Sector Independent Trade Unions, and the JVP-aligned Inter-Company Trade Union. The unemployment rate has declined in recent years and hovers at 10%. The rate of unemployment among high school and college graduates, however, remains proportionally higher than the rate for less-educated workers. The government has embarked on educational reforms it hopes will lead to better preparation of students and fewer mismatches between graduates and jobs. In addition, it also has begun a youth corps program to provide employment skills to the unemployed.
Sri Lanka is in the field of innertropischen equatorial climates. In the southwest of the island to reach the heights rainfall of up to 2 500 millimeters with two peaks in May and October. In the east fall rainfall of 1 500 millimeters per year. The driest areas are located in the northeast and southwest. The average annual temperature is 32.2 degrees Celsius in the lowlands and 21.1 ° C in the higher mountain regions.
Sri Lanka is known for the beauty and diversity of its vegetation. Overall, approximately 28 percent of the country’s forested area. In the southwest of the country are vast areas of dense tropical rainforest covered. The higher mountain regions are also heavily forested. In the coastal plains grow many different types of palm. Savannas and dry forests dominate the northern and eastern part of the island.
The Sri Lankan wildlife, including many from endangered species count is very diverse and includes, among others, cheetahs, leopards, several species of monkeys and elephants. There are also numerous species of reptiles, including crocodiles and pythons.
The deforestation is very high, because the rain forests for the collection of firewood, timber for export or for the investment of plantations will be cleared. This is a big part of the habitat for flora and fauna lost, and the subject of increased soil erosion. Another problem is poaching, the still numerous endangered species fall victim to. The ecosystems on the coast of Sri Lanka suffer from the discharge of effluents. Still trying to the Government of Sri Lanka to preserve the flora and fauna. Approximately 13.3 percent (2000) of the land is under protection. The protected area covers Sinharaja one of the last pristine areas of rainforest on the island. It was founded in 1988 by UNESCO’s world cultural heritage.
Approximately 74 percent of the population of Sri Lanka are Sinhalese. The biggest minorities are the Ceylon Tamils and Indian Tamils, which together account for about 18 percent of the population. The rest of the population comprises the Moors (descendants of the Arabian Sea and merchants), the Burgh (descendants of Portuguese and Dutch), the Malays and the Wedda, the natives of Sri Lanka.
The population of Sri Lanka is approximately 19.9 million (2004), resulting in a population density of 308 people per square kilometer.
The mountains and the southwestern part of the country, known as the “wet zone,” receive ample rainfall (an annual average of 2500 millimetres). Most of the southeast, east, and northern parts of the country comprise the “dry zone,” which receives between 1200 and 1900 mm (47–75 in) of rain annually. Much of the rain in these areas falls from October to January; during the rest of the year there is very little precipitation, and all living creatures must conserve precious moisture. The arid northwest and southeast coasts receive the least amount of rain — 600 to 1200 mm (24–47 in) per year — However, though many say that there are no really dry areas in Sri Lanka, there are many pockets of very dry and abandoned areas where there is little to no rainwater. Varieties of flowering acacias are well adapted to the arid conditions and flourish on the Jaffna Peninsula. Among the trees of the dry-land forests are some valuable species, such as satinwood, ebony, ironwood, and mahogany and teak.
In the wet zone, the dominant vegetation of the lowlands is a tropical evergreen forest, with tall trees, broad foliage, and a dense undergrowth of vines and creepers.
In ancient times, Sri Lanka was known by a variety of names: ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobane and Arabs referred to it as Serendib (the origin of the word “serendipity”). Ceilão was the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese when they arrived on the island in 1505,which was transliterated into English as Ceylon. In 1972, the official name of the country was changed to “Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka” . In 1978 it was changed to “Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka”.
The current name is derived from Sanskrit word laṃkā, meaning “resplendent land”, which was also the name of the island as described in the ancient Indian epics Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The word “Sri” is a Sanskrit title of veneration.
Climatically the driest and best seasons are from December to March on the west and south coasts and in the Hill Country, and from May to September on the east coast. December to March is also the time when most foreign tourists come, the majority of them escaping the European winter.
Out of season travel has its advantages – it’s less crowded, and many airfares and accommodation prices go right down. Nor does it rain all the time. Reefs may protect a beach area and make swimming quite feasible at places like Hikkaduwa, which during the monsoon can be quite pleasant.
July/August is the time of the Kandy Esala Perahera, the 10-day festival honouring the sacred tooth relic of the Buddha, and also the time for the Kataragama Festival in the South. In both towns accommodation just before, during and immediately after the festivals is very difficult to come by, and rates usually double or treble. Be sure to book rooms well in advance.
Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte, , also known as Kotte, is the administrative capital of Sri Lanka. It is located beyond the eastern suburbs of the commercial capital Colombo and is often called New Capital territory. The Parliament of Sri Lanka has been based here since the formal inauguration of its new building on 29 April 1982.
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island nation in South Asia, located about 31 kilometres (19.3 mi) off the southern coast of India. It is home to around twenty million people.
Because of its location in the path of major sea routes, Sri Lanka is a strategic naval link between West Asia and South East Asia, and has been a center of Buddhist religion and culture from ancient times. Today, the country is a multi-religious and multi-ethnic nation, with nearly a third of the population following faiths other than Buddhism, notably Hinduism, Christianity and Islam. The Sinhalese community forms the majority of the population, with Tamils, who are concentrated in the north and east of the island, forming the largest ethnic minority. Other communities include the Muslim Moors and Malays and the Burghers.
Famous for the production and export of tea, coffee, coconuts and rubber, Sri Lanka boasts a progressive and modern industrial economy and the highest per capita income in South Asia. The natural beauty of Sri Lanka’s tropical forests, beaches and landscape, as well as its rich cultural heritage, make it a world famous tourist destination.
After over two thousand years of rule by local kingdoms, parts of Sri Lanka were colonized by Portugal and the Netherlands beginning in the 16th century, before the control of the entire country was ceded to the British Empire in 1815. During World War II, Sri Lanka served as an important base for Allied forces in the fight against the Japanese Empire. A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century with the aim of obtaining political independence, which was eventually granted by the British after peaceful negotiations in 1948.